PECOS Admin » 99. Appendices » H: Glossary of Terms

H: Glossary of Terms

Glossary of Terms

Accounting Codes: Account codes are the individual values assigned to accounting segments. Each item in PECOS P2P has a combination of account codes assigned to it.

Accounting Segments: The individual labels given to each set of accounting codes within an accounting method.

Accounting Method: The overall accounting structure containing a combination of account segments and account codes.

Ad Hoc Addresses: Users may have, depending on their authority level, the ability to add delivery addresses to orders that are not in the system. This is known as adding an ad-hoc address.

ANSI: American National Standards Institute.

API: Application Program Interface (sometimes application programming interface). The specific method prescribed by a computer operating system or by an application program by which a programmer writing an application program can make requests of the operating system or another application.

Approval Plan: A list of business rules defining what happens to either a requisition or purchase order after it is submitted by a user. Approval Plans contain approval criteria and notification controls.

Approval Rule Groups: In PECOS P2P the groups to which users belong that determine how their orders are routed for approval.

Audit Trail: A list of all actions that occur during the processing of a requisition or purchase order that PECOS P2P records and automatically time and date stamps, which is visible to all the parties who have permission to view the order.

Browser: The user interface to PECOS P2P is through your standard Web browser (example: Microsoft Internet Explorer or Mozilla Firefox).

Business Rule Groups: In PECOS P2P, the groups to which users belong that determine their access to catalogues, financial tracking codes, and procurement cards or define their default VAT Treatment code.

Buy-For User: a user for whom one has the power to buy things in PECOS P2P. This ability is granted by the administrator in the Administration Module. Also called; “Ship-To User.

Card Aliases: In PECOS P2P the combination of numbers/letters that the system uses to refer to a credit card, preventing the actual credit card number is not revealed.

Catalogue: The online supplier catalogue loaded electronically into PECOS P2P and made available for users to search. Items are added onto a requisition.

Catalogue Explorer: An indexation of all items contained within online catalogues sorted by product classification code. Displayed on the left side of the Product Search page it allows users to drill down and conduct a search by product classification code.

CGI: Common Gateway Interface. A standard way for a Web server to pass a Web user's request to an application program and to receive data back. When the user requests a Web page (for example, by clicking on a highlighted word or entering a Web site address), the server sends back the requested page. However, when a user fills out a form on a Web page and sends it in, it usually needs to be processed by an application program. The Web server typically passes the form information to a small application program that processes the data and may send back a confirmation message. This method or convention for passing data back and forth between the server and the application is called the common gateway interface (CGI). It is part of the Web's Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).

Class Code: The product classification code associated to an item (example UNSPSC, NSV or eClass) . It is mandatory for all items.

Cookie: A cookie is a small piece of data which is sent from a website to a web browser and stored locally on a users PC. The use of cookies enables a Web site to become more interactive with its users. A session cookie is used to ensure that a user is recognised when they move from page to page within a Marketplace (example CMX) and that any information entered is remembered. Unlike normal cookies, session cookies are deleted from the users PC when they logout from a web site.

CPV: Common Procurement Vocabulary. A product classification system derived from the UN Common Procurement Classification and adopted as an EU standard. Used for public procurement and public sector reporting and used to drive OJEU Notices. {Web:}

Current Requisition: This is the requisition you currently are adding items to (it’s like a shopping basket) that is not yet submitted for approval or order. Click Requisition on the menu bar to view it.

CSV: Comma Separated Value. A flat file format sometimes used for data import or export.

cXML: Commerce eXtensible Mark-up Language. (see also XML)

CVV: Card Verification Value. A 3 or 4 digit number placed on a credit card, used by transacting organisations to verify the physical presence of the card.

Data Key: The individual or combined elements or properties of data that are used to determine the uniqueness of a catalogue item.

DTD: Document Type Definition. Is a specific definition that follows the rules of the Standard Generalized Mark-up Language (SGML). A DTD is a specification that accompanies a document and identifies what the funny little codes (or mark-up) are that separate paragraphs, identify topic headings, and so forth and how each is to be processed. By mailing a DTD with a document, any location that has a DTD "reader" (or "SGML compiler") will be able to process the document and display or print it as intended. This means that a single standard SGML compiler can serve many different kinds of documents that use a range of different mark-up codes and related meanings. The compiler looks at the DTD and then prints or displays the document accordingly.

DUNS: Dun and Bradstreet Number. DUNS numbers (or correctly D-U-N-S Numbers) are issued, owned and solely maintained by Dun & Bradstreet Corporation and are used in the main for credit risk management and corporate authentication. The DUNS Number is a unique nine-digit identification sequence, which provides unique identifiers of single business entities, while linking corporate family structures together. When a business is entered into the D&B business information database each distinct business location that it has, is assigned its own DUNS Number.

Dynamic HTML: Dynamic HTML is a collective term for a combination of new Hypertext Mark-up Language (HTML) tags and options that will let you create Web pages more animated and more responsive to user interaction than previous versions of HTML. Much of dynamic HTML is specified in HTML 4.0. Simple examples of dynamic HTML pages would include (1) having the colour of a text heading change when a user passes a mouse over it or (2) allowing a user to "drag and drop" an image to another place on a Web page. Dynamic HTML can allow Web documents to look and act like desktop applications or multimedia productions.

EAN: European Article Numbering. Widely used bar code symbology used for product marking. Two versions of EAN exist. (See also UPC.) The EAN system is managed worldwide by EAN International {Web:}

eClass: An international standard product classification system that has been developed to enable products, materials, merchandise and services to be organised in a logical structure. The system has four hierarchical levels. The highest level consists of 26 technical domains, which are divided into main groups, groups, and subgroups as leaf product classes. Each level is identified by a two-digit number, so that each subgroup can be identified by its eight-digit class number. {}

EDI: Electronic Data Interchange. Being a standard format for exchanging business data. The standard is ANSI X12 and it was developed by the Data Interchange Standards Association. ANSI X12 is either closely coordinated with or is being merged with an international standard, EDIFACT.

An EDI message contains a string of data elements, each of which represents a singular fact, such as a price, product model number, and so forth, separated by delimiter. The entire string is called a data segment. One or more data segments framed by a header and trailer form a transaction set, which is the EDI unit of transmission (equivalent to a message). A transaction set often consists of what would usually be contained in a typical business document or form. The parties who exchange EDI transmissions are referred to as trading partners.

eForm: A document held electronically in PECOS P2P.

ERP: Enterprise Resource Planning. Systems such as Oracle, JD Edwards, SAP, or Peoplesoft - an industry term for the broad set of activities supported by multi-module application software that helps a manufacturer or other business manage the important parts of its business, including product planning, parts purchasing, maintaining inventories, interacting with suppliers, providing customer service, and tracking orders. ERP can also include application modules for the finance and human resources aspects of a business. Typically, an ERP system uses or is integrated with a relational database system. PECOS can integrate information into these systems.

ERS: Evaluated Receipt Settlement. The process of self billing which automatically creates an invoice in PECOS P2P upon the processing of a receipt.

EUR: Euro (currency).

External Marketplace: The way PECOS P2P allows access to Punch-Out Suppliers.

FOB: Free On Board. Delivery terms indicating that the seller (supplier) has borne the cost of transporting goods to a port (place) of dispatch. The buyer is responsible for all costs from that point.

GBP: Great British Pounds (currency).

GECF: GE Capital Finance (corporation).

GMT: Greenwich Mean Time (Time Zone Setting).

GPC: Government Procurement Card. The Government Procurement Card (GPC) is a branded VISA Purchasing Card. It is available to the entire UK public sector at no cost through a framework agreement between, VISA and six VISA issuing banks.

GTIN: Global Trade Identification Number. Generic term representing a family of global data structures including EAN, UCC and UPC.

GUI: Graphical User Interface (see UI).

HTML: Hypertext Mark-up Language. Is the set of mark-up symbols or codes inserted in a file intended for display on a World Wide Web browser page. The mark-up tells the Web browser how to display a Web page's words and images for the user. Each individual mark-up code is referred to as an element (but many people also refer to it as a tag). Some elements come in pairs that indicate when some display effect is to begin and when it is to end.

HTML is a formal Recommendation by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and is generally adhered to by the major browsers, Microsoft's Internet Explorer and Netscape's Navigator, which also provide some additional non-standard codes. The current version of HTML is HTML 4.0. However, both Internet Explorer and Netscape implement some features differently and provide non-standard extensions. Web developers using the more advanced features of HTML 4 may have to design pages for both browsers and send out the appropriate version to a user. Significant features in HTML 4 are sometimes described in general as dynamic HTML. What is sometimes referred to as HTML 5 is an extensible form of HTML called Extensible Hypertext Mark-up Language (XHTML).

HTTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocol.

Invoice: The bill for goods or services. In PECOS P2P this information is recorded in the Invoice screen.

Key: A database identification field not used in the GUI that uniquely identifies a PECOS P2P data element.

Keywords: Database identification fields that are embedded in eMail Notification messages in order to make them more meaningful for the recipient.

LAN: Local Area Network. Usually your computer is attached to other computers and severs that reside internally within your organisation. This is your organisation’s LAN.

LDAP: Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. Is a software protocol for enabling anyone to locate organizations, individuals, and other resources such as files and devices in a network, whether on the public Internet or on a corporate intranet. LDAP is a "lightweight" (smaller amount of code) version of Directory Access Protocol (DAP), which is part of X.500, a standard for directory services in a network. LDAP is lighter because in its initial version it did not include security features. LDAP originated at the University of Michigan and has been endorsed by at least 40 companies. Netscape includes it in its latest Communicator suite of products. Microsoft includes it as part of what it calls Active Directory in a number of products including Outlook Express. Novell's NetWare Directory Services interoperates with LDAP

Left Navigational Toolbar: The table on the left of the Home Page containing navigational links.

Line Item Accounting: In PECOS P2P line item accounting is said to be “in effect” when a user’s default is changed at line level and different line items in a requisition are being charged to different account codes.

Lock Out: The inability of a user to login to PECOS P2P due to the freezing of their user id. A lockout occurs after 3 failed login attempts.

MIME Object: Multi-Media Object. Any picture, image or video file associated to an item.

MIS: Management Information System.

MRO: Maintenance, Repair, and Operations. Products and services that organisations must obtain to run their day-to-day business operations.

Non-Catalogue Items: Goods or services added to a requisition which are not included in a catalogue.

NSV: National Supplies Vocabulary. Product classification code originally developed by the NHS and used as a standard in UK government. Managed by Coding International. {Web:}

OCI: Open Catalogue Interface. Used by SAP EBP applications to communicate with external catalogue systems.

OLAP: Online Analytical Processing. Being computer processing that enables a user to easily and selectively extract and view data from different points-of-view. OLAP can be used for data mining or the discovery of previously unknown relationships between data items.

Orders: Requisitions submitted through PECOS P2P are split into separate orders based on the number of suppliers and whether non-catalogue items are being ordered. Once the order is approved, it is sent to the supplier electronically (by fax or eMail) for fulfilment.

Status and Order Tasks: A screen within PECOS P2P which allows a user to search for orders and requisitions in order to process receipting, returns, changes orders, invoices and settlement tasks or discover historical data or current document status.

P2P: Purchase to Pay or Procure to Pay. Another term associated with procurement applications (example PECOS P2P).

Parametric Search: A method of searching catalogues that enables the user to define values for certain catalogue fields. PECOS P2P returns a list of items that match the search criteria.

PCI: Procurement Card Industry. The organisation who govern data security standards for credit card issuers.

pdf: Adobe Portable Document Format. A format that allows the conversion of virtually any document in virtually any application to be universally distributed, read and stored.

PECOS.ipm: Professional Electronic Commerce Online System Internet Procurement Manager.

Preferred Catalogue Suppliers: Suppliers that the Purchasing Department has evaluated, approved, and included in the on-line PECOS P2P catalogue.

Procurement Cards: In some buying organisations, credit or charge cards which are used for purchasing supplies. Procurement card details can be configured in PECOS and printed onto the supplier purchase order. Also known as Purchasing Cards.

Punch Out: The ability to access a supplier’s website from the eProcurement application, search catalogues, fill a shopping basket and return items into a PECOS P2P requisition for approval and submission.

Purchase Order: The system assigns a unique number to each order.

Query: SQL Standard Reporting tool.

Receipt: The action in PECOS P2P confirming the physical receipt of items or the performance of a service.

Recurring Requisition: A saved list of regularly purchased items. A recurring requisition can be used to add items to a requisition instead of searching catalogues.

Requisition: Request for purchase, which may consist of items from various suppliers, grouped and ready to submit for approval or order.

RFQ: Request For Quotation.

RMA: Return Material Authorisation. A returns number issued by suppliers for tracking returned goods and against which a credit note can be issued.

Search Engine: A tool which enables a user to search for items or documents based on information that they enter. A search engine returns a list of results which meet the search criteria.

Shopping Basket: When punched into an external marketplace or supplier transactional website, the term sometimes used to refer to a list of items that an individual is buying and wishes to return to their procurement application. The Basket is sometimes referred to as a “Cart” (US).

SGML: Standard Generalized Mark-up Language.

Ship-To User: see Buy-For User.

Shopping Basket: Commercial web sites use the term “Shopping Basket” to refer to a list of items that an individual is buying. The basket is sometimes referred to as a “Cart”. In PECOS the shopping basket is known as the Current Requisition.

SME: Small and Medium Enterprises.

Source File: The relative path and name or URL of a file.

SQL: Sequential Query Language. The query logic used to run a standard report.

SSL: Secure Sockets Layer. The means of encrypting data as it passes over the internet. SSL is used by all Elcom applications.

SSO: Single Sign On.

Submitted Requisition: When you have completed your Current Requisition, the next step is to submit it for any required approvals. Once submitted, the requisition generates one purchase order or a number of purchase orders depending on how many suppliers you are ordering from.

System Administrator: The person responsible for maintaining system data, configuration and data integrity within the administration module of PECOS P2P.

To Do: The part of the PECOS P2P application where an approver can go to approve or reject requisitions, change orders and purchase orders. The To Do list also contains listings of user’s rejected requisitions, change orders and purchase orders.

UCC: Uniform Code Council. (Also known as GS1US) The organisation appointed by the UNDP as the code manager responsible for managing the UNSPSC Classification scheme. The code manager is responsible for ensuring compliance with the principles of the UNSPSC as well as the integrity of the code schema. The UCC is responsible for overseeing code change requests, industry revision projects, issuing regularly scheduled updates to the Code, communications with members, as well as special projects and initiatives as determined both by the UNDP and member requests {Web: and}.

UI: User Interface (see also GUI). Refers to what the user actually sees in the application: the interface between PECOS P2P and the user.

UNDP: United Nations Development Program. The UNDP own all rights to the UNSPSC and appointed the Uniform Code Council (UCC) as code manager (Web:

UNECE: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe.

UNSPSC: the Universal Standard Product and Service Classification code. The UNSPSC is a classification scheme for categorising goods and services. This standard schema allows organisations to better determine which product and services they are regularly using. The UNSPSC hierarchy is displayed in the Catalogue Explorer.

UOM: Unit of Measure.

UPC: Universal Product Code. Widely used bar code symbology developed originally by the grocery industry, used for product marking. Five versions of UPC exist. (See also EAN.) An online database for UPC codes exists at:

URL: Uniform Resource Locator. An internet address.

USD: United States Dollars (currency).

UUID: Universally Unique Identifier. An identifier standard used in software construction, standardised by the Open Software Foundation (OSF) as part of the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE). Enables distributed systems to uniquely identify information without significant central coordination.

VAR: Value Added Reseller. An acronym used to describe an Information Technology vendor who provides services in addition to product distribution. For example configuration, consultancy or integration.

VAT: Value Added Tax.

XML: Extensible Mark Up Language. A type of web page that allows large amounts of data to be shipped across the internet in a compact format while retaining the information in distinct fields, that can be used for integration with a database.


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